Jimmy Carter: Signed ICWA into Law

134
447

Whitehouse.gov
Jimmy Carter made no public mention of American Indians during his entire first year in office. But between August and November 1978, Carter signed into law three bills that benefited Indians: the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act and the Indian Child Welfare Act.

‘It is time that the Federal government recognized that the Indian tribes have the right to determine the course of their lives. The majority of decisions affecting tribal lives should be made in tribal council rooms not Washington D.C.’

Editor’s note: Voters this year will elect the 45th president of the United States. This is the 39th in a series of 44 stories exploring past presidents’ attitudes toward Native Americans, challenges and triumphs regarding tribes, and the federal laws and Indian policies enacted during their terms in office.

James Earl “Jimmy” Carter Jr., made no public mention of American Indians during his entire first year in office.

The 39th president of the United States, Carter only briefly mentioned Indians in his first State of the Union Address, a 12,000-word speech delivered to Congress in January 1978. Even then, Carter’s remarks were vague.

“The Administration has acted consistently to uphold its trusteeship responsibility to Native Americans,” he told Congress. “In 1978, the Administration will review Federal Native American policy and will step up efforts to help Indian tribes assess and manage their natural resources.”

The reference, likely the work of Carter’s speechwriter, Chris Matthews, set the tone for an administration that—in the beginning—largely ignored Indians. In fact, by the end of 1978, the Carter administration had decided not to announce any formal presidential Indian policy at all, historian George Pierre Castile wrote in his 2006 book Taking Charge: Native American Self-Determination and Federal Indian Policy, 1975-1993.

“Absent a presidential message, the policy of self-determination remained in place by default, but never seems to have gotten a clear endorsement by the Carter domestic policy staff,” Castile wrote. “Indian matters were dealt with piecemeal.”

Carter, who took office in January 1977, followed Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford—two presidents who championed for the end of Indian termination and ushered in an era of self-determination. Yet Carter, who inherited the new approach to Indian Affairs, maintained minimal involvement and thrust primary responsibility for Indians on the Interior Department.

“It seemed he had special advisors on everything else, but not Native Americans,” said Stanly Godbold, emeritus professor of history at Mississippi State University and author of two Carter biographies. “He certainly was interested in Indians because of his emphasis on human rights, but it was a tangential interest.”

Born in Georgia in 1924, Carter spent his childhood on lands taken from the Creek Indians more than a century earlier. In fact, some of his family’s property was acquired by lottery after the forced removal of the Creek.

As a child, Carter “regularly searched for Indian arrowheads,” biographer Peter Bourne wrote. “Ghosts of the evicted Creeks were very much in Jimmy’s mind as he grew up.” Yet Carter’s 1982 autobiography, “Keeping Faith,” doesn’t mention Indians at all.

Carter graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy, but left a promising career as an engineer to run his family’s peanut farm. He served two terms as a Georgia state senator and one term as Georgia governor before being elected as president of the United States in 1976. A Democrat, Carter served one term in office, from 1977 to 1981.

During his presidential campaign in 1976, Carter’s staff reached out to the National Congress of American Indians and the National Tribal Chairmen’s Association. Carter met briefly with some leaders and his staff drafted a position paper that endorsed Indian self-determination policy, already in force.

“It is time that the Federal government recognized that the Indian tribes have the right to determine the course of their lives,” the position paper stated. “The majority of decisions affecting tribal lives should be made in tribal council rooms not Washington D.C.”

Three months after taking office, however, Carter began fielding criticism. In April 1977, Ernest L. Stevens, director of the Joint Congressional American Indian Policy Review Commission, chided Carter for failing to name any key people in Indian Affairs.

“The hallmark of the Carter administration has been no participation by Indians,” he said in an article published in the Congressional Quarterly magazine. “The administration is relying on career bureaucrats, not Indians.”

By the end of 1977, Carter still hadn’t addressed Indian Affairs, but five congressmen had introduced 11 “anti-Indian” bills, including legislation that sought to reinstate termination policy, limit water rights, abrogate treaties, limit tribal jurisdictions and access to social services, end Indian hunting and fishing rights and terminate the statute of limitations on Indian claims.

In December, the National Congress of American Indians called a meeting in Phoenix to address these “backlash bills.” Between February and July 1978, Indians from more than 100 tribes marched 3,000 miles from Alcatraz Island to Washington, D.C., in a peaceful protest of the bills—none of which passed.
A poster from The Longest Walk, 1978. Several hundred American Indian activists and supporters marched for five months from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., to protest threats to tribal lands and water rights. (Courtesy Dennis Banks and Takeo Koshikawa/National Library of Medicine)Courtesy Dennis Banks and Takeo Koshikawa/National Library of Medicine
A poster from The Longest Walk, 1978. Several hundred American Indian activists and supporters marched for five months from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., to protest threats to tribal lands and water rights.

By contrast, between August and November 1978, Carter signed into law three bills that benefited Indians: the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, the Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act and the Indian Child Welfare Act.

The American Indian Religious Freedom Act affirmed that the federal government would “protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent rights of freedom to believe, express, and exercise” their traditional religions. Carter signed the act in August 1978, calling religious freedom a “fundamental right of every American.”

The Tribally Controlled Community College Assistance Act, signed in October 1978, guaranteed “a needed base of stable funding for postsecondary education” on Indian reservations, Carter said in a statement. The act sought to “provide American Indians with greater education opportunities near their families, their tribes, and their places of employment.”

Carter signed the Indian Child Welfare Act in November 1978, but did not make a public statement. The act, which came in response to a disproportionately high rate of Indian children being removed from their traditional homes and placed with non-Indian families, established jurisdiction for the placement of Indian children in foster or adoptive care.

Carter took a more proactive approach to Indians in his 1979 State of the Union Address, in which he tackled the long-standing issue of Indian land claims and promised to ensure that “trust relationships and self-determination principles” guided negotiations.

“The federal government has a special responsibility to Native Americans, and I intend to continue to exercise this responsibility fairly and sensitively,” he said. “There are difficult conflicts which occasionally divide Indian and non-Indian citizens in this country. We will seek to exercise leadership to resolve these problems equitably and compassionately.”

Five years earlier, the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot tribes filed suit against Maine, claiming the state had violated a 1790 treaty by grabbing land in 1796, 1818 and 1833—leaving the tribes with only 5,000 acres of land. Carter worked throughout his presidency to negotiate an agreement, signing the Maine Indian Claims Settlement Act in October 1980—just three months before leaving office.

Under the law, the Passamaquoddy and Penobscot tribes agreed to forfeit their land claims in exchange for $81.5 million, which could be used to buy 300,000 acres from nearby landowners. The tribes also received federal recognition.

During the signing ceremony, Carter called the conflict in Maine an “intolerable situation” and the act one of the “most difficult issues” he faced as president.

“The settlement authorizes a permanent land base and trust fund for the tribes and also resolves once and for all the title to the land for all the people who reside in Maine,” he said. “The settlement act does something else as well. It’s a reaffirmation that our system of government works.”

Carter left office in 1981 and was succeeded by Ronald Reagan. Now 91, Carter lives in Georgia with his wife, Rosalynn.

Source: https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/history/events/jimmy-carter-signed-icwa-into-law/?utm_content=bufferb4ef3&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer

-Advertisement-

134 COMMENTS

  1. With havin so much content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? My website has a lot of unique content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help protect against content from being ripped off? I’d definitely appreciate it.|

  2. That is the best blog for anybody who needs to seek out out about this topic. You understand a lot its almost hard to argue with you (not that I truly would need…HaHa). You undoubtedly put a brand new spin on a subject thats been written about for years. Great stuff, simply great!

  3. I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post’s to be exactly what I’m looking for. Do you offer guest writers to write content for you personally? I wouldn’t mind creating a post or elaborating on some of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome blog!|

  4. Hi, i think that i saw you visited my weblog so i came to “return the favor”.I am trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!|

  5. Undeniably believe that that you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the net the simplest thing to consider of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while other folks think about worries that they plainly do not recognize about. You controlled to hit the nail upon the top as neatly as outlined out the whole thing without having side effect , folks could take a signal. Will likely be again to get more. Thank you|

  6. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this topic to be actually something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complicated and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I will try to get the hang of it!|

  7. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to say that I acquire actually loved account your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing in your augment and even I fulfillment you get right of entry to constantly quickly.|

  8. I have been surfing on-line greater than 3 hours lately, yet I by no means found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty value enough for me. In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web can be much more helpful than ever before.|

  9. We’re a bunch of volunteers and starting a brand new scheme in our community. Your web site offered us with useful info to work on. You have done a formidable activity and our whole neighborhood shall be thankful to you.|

  10. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up. The text in your article seem to be running off the screen in Firefox. I’m not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with internet browser compatibility but I figured I’d post to let you know. The style and design look great though! Hope you get the issue resolved soon. Many thanks|

  11. Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful information specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was seeking this particular info for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.|

  12. Hmm it appears like your website ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any suggestions for novice blog writers? I’d certainly appreciate it.|

  13. Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the net the easiest thing to be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get irked while people think about worries that they plainly don’t know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top and defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal. Will probably be back to get more. Thanks|

  14. It is perfect time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read more things about it!|

  15. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You definitely know what youre talking about, why throw away your intelligence on just posting videos to your blog when you could be giving us something informative to read?|

  16. I’m not certain the place you’re getting your info, however great topic. I needs to spend a while finding out much more or figuring out more. Thanks for wonderful info I used to be searching for this information for my mission.|

  17. I’m really impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the excellent quality writing, it’s rare to see a nice blog like this one nowadays.|

  18. Hi are using WordPress for your site platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any html coding knowledge to make your own blog? Any help would be greatly appreciated!|

  19. Hey this is somewhat of off topic but I was wondering if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I wanted to get guidance from someone with experience. Any help would be enormously appreciated!|

  20. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two images. Maybe you could space it out better?|

  21. Generally I don’t learn post on blogs, however I would like to say that this write-up very compelled me to check out and do it! Your writing style has been amazed me. Thanks, very nice post.|

  22. Great items from you, man. I have take into accout your stuff previous to and you’re simply extremely great. I really like what you have obtained right here, really like what you’re saying and the best way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you continue to take care of to stay it smart. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is really a wonderful website.|

  23. each time i used to read smaller content that as well clear their motive, and that is also happening with this piece of writing which I am reading at this time.|

  24. Pretty component of content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to assert that I get actually enjoyed account your weblog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing for your feeds or even I achievement you get right of entry to persistently quickly.

  25. Thank you for another informative blog. Where else could I get that type of info written in such a perfect method? I have a undertaking that I am simply now working on, and I’ve been on the look out for such information.

  26. It’s in reality a nice and helpful piece of info. I’m satisfied that you just shared this helpful info with us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  27. I think other web-site proprietors should take this site as an model, very clean and magnificent user friendly style and design, let alone the content. You’re an expert in this topic!

  28. hello!,I really like your writing so a lot!
    proportion we be in contact extra about your post on AOL?

    I need an expert in this house to solve my problem.
    May be that’s you! Looking ahead to look you.

  29. It’s actually a cool and useful piece of info. I’m happy that you
    simply shared this helpful info with us. Please stay us informed
    like this. Thanks for sharing.

  30. It’s actually a nice and helpful piece of info. I’m satisfied that you shared this useful info with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  31. Hey, you used to write magnificent, but the last several posts have been kinda boringK I miss your tremendous writings. Past several posts are just a little out of track! come on!

  32. Fantastic website. Lots of helpful info here. I am sending it to several buddies ans additionally sharing in delicious. And naturally, thanks for your effort!

  33. Wow that was unusual. I just wrote an very long comment but
    after I clicked submit my comment didn’t appear. Grrrr…
    well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyhow, just wanted to say wonderful blog!

  34. Thank you, I’ve recently been looking for info approximately this topic for a while and yours is the best I’ve discovered till now. However, what about the bottom line? Are you positive in regards to the source?|

  35. Hi there, I found your site by means of Google at the same time as searching for a comparable matter, your website got here up, it appears good. I’ve bookmarked to favourites|added to my bookmarks.

  36. Hi, i believe that i noticed you visited my site thus i came to
    go back the choose?.I’m attempting to find issues to improve my
    site!I suppose its ok to make use of some of your
    ideas!!

  37. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your web site and in accession capital to assert that I get in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.|

  38. corex

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a couple of unrelated information, nevertheless truly really worth taking a look, whoa did 1 study about Mid East has got a lot more problerms at the same time […]

  39. You recognize thus considerably in relation to this topic, made me in my opinion imagine it from a lot of various angles. Its like women and men are not interested unless it is something to accomplish with Woman gaga! Your own stuffs great. All the time maintain it up!

  40. Pretty section of content. I just stumbled upon your website and in accession capital to assert that I acquire actually enjoyed account your blog posts. Any way I will be subscribing to your augment and even I achievement you access consistently fast.|

  41. Hey there! I understand this is kind of off-topic but I needed to ask.
    Does building a well-established blog like yours require a large amount of work?
    I am completely new to running a blog but I do write in my
    journal every day. I’d like to start a blog so I will be able
    to share my personal experience and thoughts online.
    Please let me know if you have any ideas or tips for new aspiring blog owners.
    Thankyou!

  42. It was actually great reading this info and I feel you are really correct. Inform me if you are thinking about brown upvc windows, this is my principal competence. Hope to hear from you soon enough, take care!

  43. Fantastic goods from you, man. I’ve have in mind your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely fantastic. I really like what you have obtained here, really like what you are saying and the best way wherein you assert it. You are making it enjoyable and you still take care of to stay it sensible. I can not wait to learn much more from you. This is really a tremendous website.

  44. Hi there, just became alert to your blog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful if you continue this in future. Numerous people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!|

  45. You could certainly see your expertise within the work you write.
    The sector hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to
    mention how they believe. All the time go after your heart.

  46. I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post’s to be precisely
    what I’m looking for. Does one offer guest writers to write content in your
    case? I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on a few of the subjects you write in relation to here.
    Again, awesome web log!

  47. Hi there are using WordPress for your blog platform? I’m new to the blog world but I’m trying to get started and create my own. Do you require any coding knowledge to make your own blog? Any help would be really appreciated!|

  48. Very good site you have here but I was wondering if you knew of any user discussion forums that cover the same topics talked about here? I’d really love to be a part of community where I can get advice from other experienced people that share the same interest. If you have any recommendations, please let me know. Kudos!|

  49. F*ckin’ amazing things here. I’m very glad to see your article. Thanks a lot and i’m looking forward to contact you. Will you kindly drop me a mail?

  50. Hello there! I could have sworn I’ve visited this site before but after looking at some of the posts I realized it’s new to me. Anyways, I’m certainly happy I came across it and I’ll be bookmarking it and checking back often!|

  51. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have bear in mind your stuff previous to and you’re just too magnificent. I really like what you have received here, really like what you’re stating and the way in which by which you are saying it. You’re making it entertaining and you still care for to stay it wise. I can not wait to read far more from you. This is actually a wonderful website.|

  52. Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!|

  53. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get several e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove people from that service? Thanks!|

  54. It’s a shame you don’t have a donate button! I’d most certainly donate to this excellent blog! I suppose for now i’ll settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will share this blog with my Facebook group. Chat soon!|

  55. SEO 2018

    […]Wonderful story, reckoned we could combine a couple of unrelated information, nevertheless seriously worth taking a look, whoa did 1 master about Mid East has got a lot more problerms too […]

  56. I’ve been exploring for a bit for any high quality articles or weblog posts on this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this web site. Studying this info So i’m satisfied to exhibit that I have an incredibly just right uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed. I such a lot no doubt will make certain to don?t overlook this web site and provides it a glance on a constant basis.|

  57. Howdy! This post could not be written any better! Looking at
    this post reminds me of my previous roommate! He continually
    kept preaching about this. I most certainly
    will send this post to him. Pretty sure he’ll have a great read.

    Thank you for sharing!

  58. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored subject matter stylish. nonetheless, you command get bought an impatience over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come further formerly again since exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this hike.|

  59. Greetings, There’s no doubt that your web site could be having web browser compatibility issues. When I take a look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in I.E., it’s got some overlapping issues. I merely wanted to give you a quick heads up! Apart from that, excellent website!|

  60. My brother recommended I may like this blog. He used to be totally right.
    This post truly made my day. You cann’t consider just how a lot time I had spent for this information! Thanks!

  61. Hello! This is my very first comment on this site so I simply wanted to say a quick shout out and tell you I really enjoy reading through your blog posts. Can you suggest other sites which deal with door intercom? I’m also highly fascinated by this thing! Thanks!

  62. car crash

    doctor daniel m barr of west coast health and fitness north port fl addresses auto injuries from auto accidents. He has a complete treatment facility for car accident pain. Medical professional Barr has an unique whiplash treatment.

  63. This web web-site is really a walk-through for all of the information you wanted about this and didn’t know who to ask. Glimpse here, and you will unquestionably discover it.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here